MY STORY OF THE WAR:

ENGRAVED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK
A. D. WORTHINGTON & CO., PUBLISHERS, HARTFORD, CONN.

Woman s Narrative

OF

FOUR YEARS PERSONAL EXPERIENCE

AS NURSE IN THE UNION ARMY, AND IN RELIEF WORK AT HOME,
IN HOSPITALS, CAMPS, AND AT THE FRONT, DURING
THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.

WITH

Anecdotes, Pathetic Incidents , and Thrilling Reminiscences

PORTRAYING

THE LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF HOSPITAL LIFE
AND
THE SANITARY SERVICE OF THE WAR.

BY

MARY A. LIVERMORE.

--------------------

Superbly Illustrated

WITH PORTRAITS AND NUMEROUS FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS ON
STEEL, AND FINE CHROMO-LITHO GRAPH PLATES.

-----------------------

HARTFORD, CONN.:
A. D. WORTHINGTON AND COMPANY.-

1888.

 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1887,
BY A. D. WORTHINGTON AND COMPANY,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D, C.

 

TO
THE VICTORIOUS SOLDIERS OF THE UNION ARMY,
HOWEVER CIRCUMSTANCED AND WHEREVER LIVING;
TO
The Honored Memory of the of the Heroic
Dead,
WHO MADE THE SOIL OF THE SOUTH BILLOWY
WITH THEIR GRAVES;
AND TO
MT SURVIVING CO-WORKERS IN THAT NOBLE ORGANIZATION,
THE UNITED STATES SANITARY COMMISSION,
THIS WORK IS DEDICATED.

AT the close of the war, I was importuned to publish my experiences and reminiscences in connection with the hospitals and the relief work of the Sanitary Commission. But I declined to do so. A horror of the war still enwrapped the country. The salvation of the nation had been purchased with the blood of her sons, and she was still in the throes of anguish because of her bereavement. The people had turned with relief to the employments of peaceful life, eager to forget the fearful years of battle and carnage. I put away all mementoes of the exceptional life I had led, and re-entered with gladness upon the duties connected with my home and family, giving my leisure, as before the war, to charitable work and literary pursuits. I expected this quiet and happy order of things would continue to the end.

It has been otherwise ordered. The twenty-odd years that have passed since the bells rang in the long prayer for peace have been unlike any of which I had ever dreamed. They have been packed with work, have brought me in contact with people and events of national importance, have afforded me extended opportunities of travel in my own Country and Europe, and have given me a largeness and variety of experience not often gained by a woman. The sun of my life is now sloping swiftly to the west, the years that I have travelled lie stretching in long array behind me, and I am approaching the time when one lives much in memory. I have again been asked to write for publication my story of the war and its relief work, and this time the request has found me favorably disposed to the undertaking.

The public ear has listened eagerly to the stories of the great battles of the war of the rebellion, told by the master spirits who conducted them, and who led the hosts of freedom to victory. The plan of the campaigns, the division of the forces, and the parts assigned to the various officers in command, the topography of the battle-fields, the personal prowess and heroism developed in the hotly contested struggle, and the jubilant victory which resulted, whose pæans of joy drowned the cries of the wounded and the wails of bereavement---of these histories the people have not grown weary. Every detail of Fort Donelson and Vicksburg, Antietam and Gettysburg, and the surrender of Appomattox is eagerly sought and devoured with zest. Millions of readers bend over the thrilling autobiographies of Grant, Sherman, Logan, and other great captains of the memorable war, when, on the top wave of a nation's righteous wrath with slavery, four million of slaves were lifted to the level of freemen.

But there is a paucity of histories of the private soldier, of sketches of the rank and file. These have not been written, partly because of the modesty of the men whose experiences were worth narrating, and partly because they were not favorably circumstanced for extensive observation. There is a whole world of thrilling and heroic deed and endeavor, of lofty patience, silent endurance and sacrifice, connected with the soldiers of the army, of which the world will always remain ignorant. It cannot be told. Neither can the deeds of nobleness performed by the people who remained at home, and who stood loyally by the government in its every hour of extremity. They measured their ready aid by the nation's need, and, in their consecration to the cause of national unity and freedom, outran all outward demands made upon them.

The patriotism of men., the solemn joyfulness with which they gave of their possessions and of themselves, the unfaltering faith which no disaster could shake and no treachery enfeeble, who has told us of these, in detail? Who has fully narrated the consecrated and organized work of women, who strengthened the sinews of the nation with their unflagging enthusiasm, and bridged over the chasm between civil and military life, by infusing homogeneousness of feeling into the army and the people, "keeping the men in the field civilians, and making the people at home, of both sexes, half soldiers"? It can never be understood save by those who lived through that period, when one year counted more in the history of noble development than a half-score of ordinary years of buying and selling, building and furnishing, visiting and feasting. If this book shall in any way help to supply the deficiency I have indicated, my purpose will be accomplished.

I am largely indebted to my husband and friends for the materials from which this book has been made. My own tendency is to destroy the records of my past, as soon as an event or experience has ended. I have had little taste for preserving records, journals, memoranda, and letters, and am never hampered with this sort of impedimenta. "Let the dead past bury its dead!" has been one of my cherished mottoes. The duty of the hour, the work of the "living present," has enthralled me, rather than contemplation of the past. But, in this instance, what I have been careless of preserving, my kindred and friends have held in trust for me.

For more than a dozen years, covering the entire period of the war, I was associated with my husband in the editorship of his paper, published in Chicago. For its columns I wrote sketches of all events, that were interesting or inspiring, in connection with the Sanitary Commission. Its readers were informed of every phase of its relief work, as soon as it was undertaken, and of its special calls for aid. And when I went to the hospitals on errands connected with the sick, wounded and dying, or made trips into the army in charge of sanitary stores, for whose disbursement I was held responsible, I always corresponded for the press. And no issue of my husband's paper appeared, when I was thus engaged, that did not contain long letters from the front, packed with narrations of facts and events, for which I knew its readers were eagerly looking.

I sent similar letters to other periodicals in the Northwest, wrote war sketches for magazines struggling for existence, edited the monthly bulletins of the Chicago Branch of the Commission, which were its means of communication with its four thousand Aid Societies, wrote its circular letters appealing for specific and immediate aid, wrote for its contributors a detailed history of the first great Sanitary Fair, which proved the inspiration and model of those which followed it, dictated and penned letters by the thousand from the rooms of the Commission, which were inspired by the emergencies of the time, and which have been largely preserved by the individuals and societies to whom they were addressed, answered every soldier's letter that I received, whether I had ever heard of him or not, wrote letters by the hundred to their friends at home, by the bedside of sick, wounded and dying soldiers, and in behalf of those who had died---in short, notwithstanding the herculean work imposed on me, as on all women at the head of the Branch Commissions, I accomplished more with my pen during the four years of the war than during any similar period of time before or since.

Whatever of mine was published, or whatever related to my work during the war, my husband preserved in chronological order, as he did all memoranda or diaries made by me. And whatever letters came to me from the army, or from civilians working in the interest of the country, he saved from destruction. When to these were added my personal letters to friends, which after twenty years were returned, in response to an appeal for them, copies of circulars, bulletins, reports, crude magazine sketches, synopses of addresses, all inspired by the one absorbing topic of the time---the war for the Union, and its brave soldiers, with their anxious and suffering families,---I was embarrassed by the enormous bulk of the collection. It was no small task to collate and arrange the appalling mass of documents, and to decide what would be of present interest, and what had been made valueless by the lapse of years.

At last the book is completed, and is now presented to the public. In no sense does it purport to be a history. It is a collection of experiences and reminiscences, more interesting to me in the retrospect than at the time of their occurrence. For then all who loved their native land, and strove to save it from disintegration, carried its woes on their hearts like a personal bereavement, and only lived through the awful anguish by the help of the mighty panacea of absorbing work for others. No one is more keenly alive than I to the defects of this volume. But any farther attempt at improvement would result, I fear, in its entire withdrawal. And as I have something to say in behalf of the common soldiers, most of them veritable Philip Sidneys in their heroism and unselfishness, and of that noble army of women who worked untiringly for the right, while the war lasted, "exerting a greater moral force on the nation than the army that carried loaded muskets," I hasten to save my work from destruction, by placing it beyond my reach, in the hands of the publisher.

May it receive a warm welcome from the "Boys in Blue," whose thinning ranks can never know an increase, and from my surviving co-workers in the Sanitary Commission, whose beloved comradeship is one of the priceless possessions of which the covetous years have not wholly bereft me.

1. THE MISISSIPPI STEAMER "FANNY OGDEN" ON HER WAY WITH RELIEF FOR SICK AND WOUNDED SOLDIERS

2. ON THE WAY TO ANTIETAM WITH HOSPITAL SUPPLIES

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF BATTLE FLAGS

CHAPTER I.

THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR---THE SPIRIT OF 1861---FIRST CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS---UPRISING OF THE NORTH---EXCITING SCENES AND INCIDENTS.

In Boston with my dying Father---His early History---Surrender of Fort Sumter---Uprising of the North---President Lincoln's Call for Seventy-five Thousand Troops---Their Rendezvous in Faneuil Hall ---Departure of the Massachusetts Sixth for Washington---Scenes at the Boston and Albany Station---Interview with Mr. Garrison and Wendell Phillips---The Massachusetts Sixth attacked in Baltimore---War Scenes In Auburn, N. Y.---My Return to Chicago--- Impressive Scenes in the Republican Wigwam---Cairo, Ill., a strategic Point---North and South hasten to seize it---Chicago Troops arrive first and take Possession---Increased Preparations for War.---Washington carefully guarded---Defeat at Bull Run---The North nerved to Power and Purpose---The South exultant in Self- Confidence---Lines now sharply drawn between loyal and disloyal States

CHAPTER II.

LOYAL WOMEN OF THE NORTH---THEIR PATRIOTISM AND DEVOTION---HEROINES OF THE BATTLE-FIELD---HOME-WORK AND RELIEF SOCIETIES---SCRAPING LINT AND ROLLING BANDAGES.

The Patriotism of Men paralleled by that of Women---Notable Examples---Testimony of President Lincoln---Blunders of Inexperience---The Havelock Mania---A Woman Soldier in the Nineteenth Illinois---Sent out of Camp, she attempts Suicide---Is rescued and joins her Husband---Madame Turchin, Wife of the Colonel---Her Bravery and military Skill---Her Ability as a Nurse---She defeats a Court-Martial---Other military Heroines---Annie Etheridge of the Third Michigan---Bridget Devens of the First Michigan Cavalry---Kady Brownell of the Fifth Rhode Island---Georgianna Peterman, the Wisconsin Drummer-Girl---Army Stories of military Women---Bandage and Lint Craze---Local Relief Societies---Queer Assortment of Supplies---Cars flooded with fermenting Goodies---Great Waste and Loss---Liberality of the People continues---Wiser Methods are devised

CHAPTER III.

AT THE FRONT---WRETCHED HOSPITAL ARRANGEMENTS---THE SANITARY COMMISSION---ITS OBJECT, METHODS, AND WORK---BATTLE-FIELD RELIEF.

Early Ignorance and Inefficiency of Officers---The Cause of Sickness and Death in Camp---Letters from the Front in Proof---Fearful Mortality of British Soldiers in the Crimea, in 1855---Occasioned by similar Causes---Local Relief Societies organized---New York Women show practical Wisdom---The Sanitary Commission evolved from their Methods---Plan of Organization drawn up by Dr. Bellows---Sanctioned by the President and Secretary of War---The Commission soon conquers all Prejudice---Its Work very extensive---Inspectors sent to Camps and Hospitals---Monographs prepared on the Hygiene of the Army---Portable "Soup-Kettles "---" Hospital Cars"---Forty Soldiers' Homes---Claim, Pension, and Back Pay Agency---" Hospital Directory "---"Battle-field Relief Service"---Ten "Branch Commissions"---Relief rendered at Shiloh and Antietam---The Supplies, or Money for their Purchase, Made or Collected by Women

CHAPTER IV.

MY FIRST CONNECTION WITH THE SANITARY COMMISSION---HOME SUPPLIES FOR THE SOLDIERS---A PEEP INTO THE BOXES---LETTERS FOUND INSIDE---ODD CONTRIBUTIONS.

Local Societies merged in the Commission---Become identified with the Chicago Branch---The Secrets of the Boxes of Supplies---Notes packed in with the Clothing---They are tender, pathetic, heroic, and comic---A letter-writing Army---"Consecrated Chicken, be jabers!"---"Butter an' Chase, bedad!"---"Comfort-bags"--"Benedictions" in the Murfreesboro' and Vicksburg Boxes---"One Box a Month"---Ingenious Wisconsin Farmers' Wives---Women in the Harvest-field---A Talk with them---Generosity of a "Tailoress "---The "five-dollar gold Piece"---" Matches! Matches!"---Afraid of a Kiss---Children's Sanitary Fairs---Gift of a five-year-old Boy

CHAPTER V.

AT THE ROOMS OF THE SANITARY COMMISSION---ITS WORKERS AND ITS VISITORS---HEART-RENDING SCENES AND INCIDENTS---THE RECORD OF A DAY.

Rooms of the Chicago Commission---The Din of Draymen and Packers---Sewing-Rooms for Soldiers' Families---"The Perfume of the Sanitary"---The dingy little Office---Immense Work performed in it---Judge Skinner, the President---Mr. Blatchford, Treasurer---The "Quartette" of the Office---John Freeman, the "Man of all Work"---William Goodsmith, our "Sheet-Anchor"---Mrs. Hoge, my Friend and Co-Worker---Volunteer and transient Help---Women, Girls, and Soldiers---Drayloads of Boxes---Ladies seeking Information---Express Messengers---The Morning Mail---The aged Father and his dead Son---"What ails the little Fellow?"---A Bevy of Nurses---A sorrow-stricken Mother---Soldiers from the City Hospitals---More loaded Drays---More Men and Women come and go---The Day declines---Return to my Home---" A Suburb of Heaven"

CHAPTER VI.

A CAMPAIGN PLANNED BY A WOMAN---DESPERATE BATTLES---TERRIBLE SCENES ON THE BATTLE-FIELD---TERRIFIC FIGHTING AND APPALLING SUFFERING---THE AGONIES OF WAR.

General McClellan supersedes General Scott---Missouri becomes the Field of Battle---General Grant wins a Victory at Belmont---Fleet of "Ironclads" for Service on Southern Rivers---The "Tennessee Campaign" planned by Anna Ella Carroll, of Maryland---Plan adopted by President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton---Carried out by General Grant---The "Court of Claims," in 1885, decides in her Favor---Fort Henry on the Tennessee captured by Gunboats---They fail to take Fort Donelson on the Cumberland---General Grant attacks by Land---The Fort surrenders, after Three Days' Fighting---"Unconditional Surrender Grant!"---Joy of the Northwest Frightful Suffering of the Wounded---Many frozen to Death on both Sides---The People move to succor the Wounded---Immense Quantities of Supplies forwarded---Seven thousand Prisoners sent to Camp Douglas---Five hundred die

 CHAPTER VII.

AFTER THE BATTLE---MY FIRST EXPERIENCE IN A MILITARY HOSPITAL----A DEATHLY FAINTNESS COMES OVER ME---NERVING MYSELF FOR THE WORK---TOUCHING SCENES.

Mrs. Hoge and myself visit the Hospitals of St. Louis---Our first Experience---Boisterousness of new Recruits---The grim Silence of Men who had "been under fire"---Our remarkable Hostess---Conspicuous and unflinching Loyalty---Her "Hospital Kitchen" and "Hospital Wagon"---"Eleven Hundred Soldiers' Letters !"---The Donelson Wards---Their sickening Odor and ghastly Sights---Horrible Mutilation of the Men---A deathly Faintness came over me---The Wounded and Dead robbed on the Field of Battle---Plucky Fellow---They couldn't be bothering with us"---"Afraid to die! "Send for a Methodist Minister!"----The Magic of Song---The mental Conflict of the Night that followed---St. Louis sitting in Gloom---Sad Wedding in the Hospital---Death of the Bridegroom

CHAPTER VIII.

I BECOME ACCUSTOMED TO HOSPITAL WORK---FILTH AND DISCOMFORT, NEGLECT AND SUFFERING---LEAVES FROM MY EXPERIENCE---MESSAGES FROM THE DYING TO LOVED ONES AT HOME.

Cairo an immense Basin, partially filled---Skilful Pilotage needed---Comfortless Hospitals----"My Wife came this Morning"---"Bring me a drink from the Spring"---The "Brick Hospital" a Marvel of Excellence---"Sisters of the Holy Cross" its Nurses---The young rebel Prisoner---Longing for his Mother---"Philip Sidneys" in every Hospital---Mary Safford my Companion the second Time---Her Method of Work---Her Memorandum Book and Baskets---Something for everyone---" You are the good Fairy of the Hospitals"---Men crying for Milk---Mourning the Loss of "Mother Bickerdyke"---Wounded Soldier from "Island No. Ten"---Noble Letter from his Wife---" The Children needed him more than I"---Eulogy of Mary Safford---Her Career since the War---Professor in the Boston University School of Medicine .

CHAPTER IX.

AWAITING THE BATTLE OF SHILOH---PREPARATIONS FOR THE WOUNDED---AWFUL SLAUGHTER---VARIED PHASES OF HOSPITAL LIFE---"MISSING."

A Perfect Military Hospital---"Mother Angela," the Lady "Supérieure "---"White-winged Sun-bonnets"---Battle of Shiloh---Appalling Slaughter on both Sides---Rebel Prisoners' Ward---"You-uns is very good to we-uns! "---The Rebel Surgeon's Fear---Meet an old Acquaintance among the Rebel Wounded---The Valiant Eleventh Illinois---Great Prejudice against Protestant Nurses---The "Sisters" preferred---"They never see anything, nor hear anything, and tell no Tales!"---Good General Strong, Post Commander at Cairo---Am sent to St. Louis for Invalid Soldiers---Turner's "Descriptive List" Missing---Found in the Clerk's Office---General Curtis discharges him---He also furloughs young Brackett---Great Jollification In the Ward---They accompany me to Chicago

CHAPTER X.

THE DARKEST PERIOD OF THE WAR---MY VISIT TO WASHINGTON IN 1862---STRANGE EXPERIENCES ON THE JOURNEY---PITIFUL SCENES IN A CONVALESCENT CAMP.

Woman's Council called in Washington-Mrs. Hoge and myself the Chicago Delegates---Darkest Period of the War---Am detained at Suspension Bridge---A Restless Crowd in the Waiting-room---A blind Vocalist Charms them to Quietness---Homeward-bound Invalid Soldiers on the Trains---Repulsive Instrument of Slave Torture---Trains going North from Washington packed with furloughed Soldiers---President Lincoln's Explanation---"The War to be ended by Strate!"---We take in our Charge a sick Soldier---New Experience in Baltimore---Visit to Dorothea Dix---Her extensive Work---Superintendent of Women Nurses---Washington Soldiers' Home---Amy Bradley the Matron---"Solid Chunks of Sunshine"---Visit Alexandria---"Camp Misery"---"A perfect Golgotha"---Great Indignation of Visitors---Amy Bradley takes up her Abode in the Camp---Great Improvement follows---"The Soldiers' Journal"---We visit President Lincoln

CHAPTER XI.

LIFE IN A CONTRABAND CAMP---WASHINGTON IN 1865--CONTRABAND PRAYER MEETING---MY INTERVIEW WITH SECRETARY STANTON---THE DRUMMER-BOY OF THE EIGHTH MICHIGAN.

Fugitive Slaves rejoicing in Freedom---Prayer-meeting in Camp---Meet old "Aunt Aggy"---An Episode of Slavery---"Thar's a Day a-comin'!"---Lively Praying---Tempestuous Singing--Intense Sectarians---A Boy Philosopher---Visit Washington in 1865---Great Changes---Deserters from the Enemy---Runaway Negro with a Six-Mule Team---Courtesy and Kindness of Secretary Stanton--- Meet Admiral and Mrs. Farragut---Their Simplicity and Geniality---Lieutenant Gushing, the Hero of the Ram Albemarle---Other Eminent Notabilities---The Drummer Boy of the Eighth Michigan--Enlists with his Teacher---Charlie petted by all---His Teacher and Captain shot at James Island---Fierce Life of the Eighth Michigan---Charlie shares it All---Struck by a chance Shot---Fatal Result

CHAPTER XII.

A TRIP DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI---AMONG THE SICK AND DYING---OUR MISSION AND STORES---LOVING MESSAGES FROM HOME---A BRIDE'S SONG FOR A DYING SOLDIER.

The Army encamped at Young's Point---They cut the Levees---Great Sickness results---Special Relief Corps sent down---Mrs. Colt, of Milwaukee, and myself attached to the Corps---Our Programme---Outfit---Some of the Messages entrusted me---Our wheezy Boat---Disloyal Officers---Musical Talent on Board---Singing in the Hospitals---Touching Episode---Scene in a Memphis Hospital---"Mother, don't you know your Boy "---Our Headquarters in Memphis, at Gayoso House---Women Secessionists---To be sent within Confederate Lines---A stormy Interview---"Allows me to be at large!"---We embark on the Tigress for the lower Mississippi---A dreary Journey

CHAPTER XIII.

ALONG THE DREARY RIVER---SAD SIGHTS IN A REGIMENTAL HOSPITAL---JOLLY BATTERY BOYS---I AM WELCOMED TO CAMP BY OLD FRIENDS.

Perils of the lower River---The Tigress and its disloyal Officers---The Stewardess a Virago---"I could throw you overboard as if you were a Cat!"---Lake Providence and its fathomless Mud---"The Sanitary Commission's got mired! "---Go down to Milliken's Bend---Distribute Supplies to Hospitals---Sorry Plight of a Wisconsin Regimental Hospital---Surgeon-General Wolcott, of Wisconsin, breaks it up---In the Camp of the Chicago Mercantile Battery---"What a Hubbub! What a Jubilee!"---Evening Prayers in Camp---The Boys get Breakfast---" The Victuals will taste better if you don't see the Cooking!"---Leave for Young's Point---General Grant's Despatch Boat Fanny Ogden gives me Passage

CHAPTER XIV.

OPPOSITE VICKSBURG---ARRIVAL AT GENERAL GRANT'S HEADQUARTERS---MY INTERVIEW WITH HIM-MY PETITION---A TOUCHING STORY.

We call on General Grant---Reticent, patient, and persistent---We put ourselves on "short Rations" of Talk with him---Stories of his Intemperance foul Calumnies---His chivalric Defence of General Sherman---Am entrusted with a Variety of Errands to him---My Decision concerning them---Second call alone on General Grant---"The Gibraltar of America"---The General is very accessible---Not hedged about by Formalities---The most bashful Man I had ever encountered---"I will let you know To-morrow "---Discharges twenty-one invalid Soldiers, and gives me Transportation for them---One dies in Memphis---Another dies in Chicago, almost Home.

CHAPTER XV.

I AM INSTALLED HEAD COOK IN A FIELD HOSPITAL---CHEERING UP THE "BOYS"---CAPRICIOUS APPETITES---MY RIDE WITH BLACK SOCRATES---VICKSBURG.

Large Field Hospital at Young's Point---Am put in Charge---Cater to the capricious Appetites---"Tea and Toast" for a forty-five-year-old "Boy"---" Tea! tea! tea! from the homespun Teapot"---Lemonade under Difficulties---Men transferred to Hospital Steamer City of Memphis---Visit to the Thirteenth Illinois---" Socrates" and his Six-Mule Team---" Mules is dat mean dey has ter be licked!"---Accomplishments of the Thirteenth Illinois---"The stealing Regiment"---Accompany the Engineer Corps down the Levee---Peep into Vicksburg with a powerful Glass---No sign of Home-Life---Rams Lancaster and Switzerland run the Blockade---One destroyed, the other disabled

CHAPTER XVI.

COMING UP THE RIVER---A FREIGHT OF LIVING MISERY---GOING OUT FROM THE LAND OF BONDAGE---AMONG SICK SOLDIERS, CONTRABANDS AND REFUGEES.

A forward Movement---Gunboats run the Vicksburg Batteries---They Convey Transports down the River---Troops cross and beleaguer Vicksburg---We take Passage in the Maria Denning for Cairo---The Boat packed with human and animal Misery---Sick Soldiers comforted by our Presence---Johnny, the Virginia Refugee, given to my Care---His History---The tempestuous "Praise-meetings" of the Contrabands tabooed---Refugees encamped on the River Bank---Signal the Boat to stop---The Captain dares not---Fears Treachery---Meet Ford Douglas at Lake Providence---Agree to take a slave Boy to Chicago, despite Illinois "Black Laws"

CHAPTER XVII.

THE STORY OF THREE LITTLE ORPHANS---SMUGGLING A PLANTATION WAIF THROUGH "EGYPT"---THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD---SAFE AT LAST---AFFECTING MEETING.

We find three Orphan Refugees in Camp Convalescent, Fort Pickering---Their pitiful History---We take them to the Chicago Home of the Friendless---Adopted by an Iowa Family---Cairo makes Addition to our Cares---Lizzie the Orphan Refugee from Missouri---Go aboard the Chicago Sleeper, with Johnny and the black Lad---The stuttering Porter hides the black Boy---"D-d-d-dat Woman's slep' mighty little fo' mos' s-s-s-six Weeks"---"She's d-d-d-done got monst'ous sick"---We defy "Egypt" and the "Black Laws"---Reach Chicago at Midnight---Sunday Morning, hunt up the black Lad's Mother---Affecting Meeting---Sarah Morris tells her Story---Johnny and Lizzie cared for

CHAPTER XVIII.

OUR BATTERY BOYS---A SECRET DRILL---THE DISCOVERY---OFF TO THE FRONT---GOD-SPEED AND FAREWELL TO MY SUNDAY-SCHOOL BOYS---EXTRACTS FROM THEIR DIARIES.

Our Church in Chicago---The Morale of its young Men---Memories of the Past---A loyal Congregation---What happened at Evening Service---Sudden Disappearance of our young Men---A peculiar Sound from the Sunday-School Room---Tramp! Tramp! Tramp !---We stealthily open the Door and peep in---Our Discovery---"We have all decided to enlist"---An unspoken Prayer---All but two of our young Men are mustered into the Chicago Mercantile Battery--The Grief of Parting---Solemn Consecration---An affecting Farewell---Extracts from their Diaries---A jolly set---Roughing it without Whining---The Art of Frying Cakes---"Sweet Times here"---The Siege of Vicksburg--Awaiting the Battle---Army Life at the Front---"Spoiling for a Fight"---Ordered into Action---We keep up Communication with our Boys---A Country devastated by War---An unexpected Visitor

CHAPTER XIX.

THE STORY OF OUR BATTERY BOYS CONTINUED---A DISASTROUS EXPEDITION---A TRAP OF DEATH AND DESTRUCTION---SCENES OF HORROR---THRILLING ACTS OF BRAVERY AND DEVOTION.

Changes among our Boys---Breaking down under the hardships of War---The Battery constantly shifts its Encampment---Working hard to kill Time---The Humorous Side of Life in Camp---History of "Doggie Doggett," the Canine Member of the Battery---His Exploits and Unknown Fate---Lost in the Service---Unfortunate Expedition---Up the Red River---Charging the Enemy with a Baggage-Train---Our Boys fall into a Trap of Death and Destruction---A terrific Charge by ten thousand Rebels---Overpowered by superior Numbers---Retreat or Surrender the only Alternative---The Guns of the Battery captured---Death of Lieutenant Throop---Sergeant Dyer shot while spiking his Gun---Many of our Boys are taken Prisoners---Hugh Wilson's Devotion---Only eight of our Boys return at the Close of the War

CHAPTER XX.

THE FIRST GREAT SANITARY FAIR---RAISING MONEY FOR HOSPITAL RELIEF---A GREAT AND MEMORABLE DAY---A MOTLEY PROCESSION THREE MILES LONG.

Continued Needs of the Hospitals lead to a great Sanitary Fair---A Woman's Enterprise from the Beginning---Large Preparations---Seventeen Bushels of Fair Circulars and Letters sent at one Mail---Mrs. Hoge obtains Help from Pittsburg and Philadelphia---Potter Palmer from New York---Boston and Connecticut contribute--The whole Northwest ransacked for Attractions---At last, Men catch the Fair Mania---Their varied Gifts---Opening Inaugural Procession---Captured rebel Flags borne along---School Children in Carriages and Omnibuses---Convalescent Soldiers from Hospitals---Procession of Farm Wagons, with Vegetables---Procession halts on the Court House Lawn---Firing of thirty-four Guns announces

CHAPTER XXI.

STORY OF THE GREAT FAIR CONTINUED---ITS SIX HALLS---PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S DONATION---UNEXAMPLED ENTHUSIASM---" GOD BLESS THE FARMERS."

Profusion of Wares and rapid Sales---Daily Excursion Trains---President Lincoln donates the Manuscript of the Proclamation of Emancipation---Large Quantities of Food sent from the Country to the Dining-Hall---How Dubuque furnished her Quota of Supplies---Picturesque Scene---Hall erected for Donations of Machinery---Our Bargain with the Builder---A Revelation and its Results---County Court Room transformed into a "Curiosity Shop"---Rebel Flags, and Battle Trophies---Slave Shackles and Collars---Large Loan Collection of Art Works---Anna Dickinson's Lectures---Dinner to Northwestern Governors, Congressmen, and other Dignitaries---Gift of Live Stock---Auction Sales on the Sidewalk

CHAPTER XXII.

LAST DAYS OF THE GREAT FAIR---SOLDIERS' DAY---TOTAL RECEIPTS NEARLY ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS---INTERESTING ITEMS AND INCIDENTS.

Dinner given by the Ladies to eight hundred invalid Soldiers in Hospitals---Lady Managers dined by Gentlemen, who serve the Feast---Mighty Frolic---"Completely tuckered out!"---Items and Incidents---Afghan made with Money found in a dead Soldier's Pocket---Contraband's Gift---Donation of Octogenarians---Mite of the German Woman---The Luck of the Chickamauga Soldier---Major-General Herron of Iowa in the Fair---Letters of Gratitude from Soldiers in Hospitals---"Must see that Fair"---"All I have"---Safe place of Retreat---Pleasant Greetings---"A Soldier's Psalm of Woman"---Cheers for Lincoln---Cheers for the Soldiers---Cheers for the Ladies of the Sanitary Commission---Specimen of the Soldiers' Battle-cry---The Dead

CHAPTER XXIII.

SHERMAN'S MARCH TO THE SEA---DEATH-BLOW TO THE REBELLION---SURRENDER OF LEE---ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN---THE MARCH OF EVENTS.

The End draws near---Sherman's March to the Sea---He finds the Southern Confederacy a Shell to be easily crushed---Much Anxiety felt at the North for the Result---He takes Savannah, with its immense Stores, and informs the President of his Gift---The South surprised---English Journals prophesy Failure---Reaches the Atlantic Coast---Co-operates with Grant and Lincoln---Richmond evacuated---Lee surrenders---Delirious Joy of the Nation---Characteristic Procession improvised in Chicago---Lincoln assassinated---Joy swallowed up in passionate Sorrow---Disbanding of the Army---Motley Treasures brought Home by Soldiers---Eager to reach Home---Gladness of the Nation at the Return of Peace

CHAPTER XXIV.

MOTHER BICKERDYKE---STORY OF A REMARKABLE WOMAN---HER MOTHERLY CARE OF THE "BOYS IN BLUE"---HOSPITAL SIGHTS AND SCENES---ON THE BATTLE-FIELD AT NIGHT.

A remarkable Woman---Sent into the Service at Cairo by Ladies of Galesburg, Ill.---Improvises a sick-diet Kitchen---Stratagem to detect the Thieves who steal her Delicacies---"Peaches don't seem to agree with you, eh?"---Colonel (now General) Grant removes the dishonest Officials---Mother Bickerdyke after the Battle of Donelson---A Surgeon's Testimony---She extemporizes a Laundry---Is associated with Mrs. Porter of Chicago---After the Battle of Shiloh---" I get my Authority from the Lord God Almighty; have you anything that ranks higher?"---Her System of foraging---Her "Night-Gowns" as hospital Shirts---"Say you jerked them from the Secesh, Boys!"---Experiences at Corinth---Finds a dying Soldier left in a Tent

CHAPTER XXV.

THRILLING INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF MOTHER BICKERDYKE---HER HOSPITAL EXPERIENCES---HER FIRST FURLOUGH---RETURN TO THE FRONT---FIGHTING THE DOCTORS---A COW-AND-HEN EXPEDITION.

She is much worn down---Extremely Perilous to remain longer with-out Rest---Her Health demands a Respite from her Labors for a Time---Comes to my House on her Furlough---Attends a Wedding---"Have enjoyed your Wedding as if it were a Prayer-Meeting!"---Calls Meetings to raise Supplies---Returns to the Front, organizes and regenerates Hospitals---Re-Organizes her Laundries in Memphis---Quarrels with the Medical Director---Out-generals him---"One of us two goes to the Wall, and 'taint never me!"---The Storm finally ends in Sunshine---They become Friends---He sends her North on a Cow-and-Hen Expedition---Returns with a hundred Cows, and a thousand Hens---Improved Condition of the Hospitals---Confided in everywhere---Impatient of Red Tape---Cared little for Self, but much for the Comfort of the Soldiers

CHAPTER XXVI.

MOTHER BICKERDYKE AND GENERAL SHERMAN---A NIGHT OF HORROR---HEROIC EFFORTS TO SAVE THE WOUNDED FROM FREEZING---HEART-RENDING SCENES AND TERRIBLE SUFFERING.

Mother Bickerdyke's Idolatry of General Sherman---She becomes an Attachée of his Corps---Comes to Chicago and does good Work for Soldiers' Families---Goes to Chattanooga after the Battle, and establishes a Hospital---Incredible Exertion to save her Patients from Freezing---Orders Breastworks torn down for Fuel---" All right, Major, I'm arrested! Only don't meddle with me till the Weather moderates! "---General Burnside beleaguered in Knoxville, Tenn.---Sherman marches to his Relief---Fearful Suffering from Cold and short Rations---Horrors of the Return Route to Chattanooga---Railroad from Nashville completed at last---Joyful Welcome of the first Train---All Night in the icy Gale---She ran from Tent to Tent---She encouraged the shivering Soldiers---Her Name mentioned only with Tears

CHAPTER XXVII.

STORY OF MOTHER BICKERDYKE CONCLUDED---FOLLOWING THE FLAG IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN---HER MOTHERLY MINISTRATIONS IN THE MIDST OF BATTLE---HER LIFE AND CAREER SINCE THE WAR.

Mother Bickerdyke makes an eloquent Speech---Disregards Sherman's Orders, and calls on him. Obtains the Favor she seeks---Six Months in the Rear of Battles---Death of General McPherson---Sherman begins his March to the Sea---Mother Bickerdyke packs all Hospital Supplies, and sends to Nashville---Goes to meet Sherman, with a Steamer loaded with Supplies, as he directed---They are not needed, and she cares for the Andersonville Prisoners---The War ends, and she returns to Louisville---Her Life since the War---The Government grants a pension to her---The Soldiers do not forget her---Her Effort to keep a Hotel in Kansas not a Success---Unsectarian, but Christian---Her present Home

CHAPTER XXVIII.

MY REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN---EXPERIENCE IN THE "WIGWAM"---EXCITING SCENES---MY INTERVIEWS WITH THE PRESIDENT AT THE WHITE HOUSE.

Early Life of President Lincoln---My first Knowledge of him, in 1858 The Battle of the Giants"---He is nominated in 1860 for the Presidency---My Experience in the "wigwam" as a Reporter---The memorable Scenes attending the Nomination---My Visit to Washington in 1862---Gloomy Period of the War---Call on the President---His Depression---Discouraging Statements---Wholesale Desertions from the Army---"To undertake to fill up the Army is like shovelling Fleas!"---Mrs. Hoge and I see the President alone---His Suffering during the War---He contributes the manuscript Proclamation of Emancipation to the Chicago Sanitary Fair---A Premium sent him as the largest Contributor

CHAPTER XXIX.

REMINISCENCES OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN CONTINUED---SCENES AT THE WHITE HOUSE---A WIFE'S SAD STORY AND AFFECTING PETITION---I INTERCEDE WITH THE PRESIDENT---HIS SYMPATHY AND MERCY.

The President refuses to pardon a Virginia Spy---Wife of the condemned Illinois Major---Her sad Story---She is too much broken down to plead for her Husband's Life---"Beg the President not to allow my Husband to be shot!"---I tell her Story---The President's Sympathy---"These Cases kill me"---He had already commuted the Major's Sentence---His Delight at the Discovery---"I know all about it now"---The grateful Woman fainted---She is told to go and visit her Husband---The broken-hearted Wife goes away imploring Blessings on the President---Beautiful Reception of Miss Elizabeth Peabody---Touching Letter to Mrs. Bixby---Her five Sons were killed in Battle---Humorous Reply to his Advisers---"Keep Silence, and we'll get you safe across

CHAPTER XXX.

MY LAST INTERVIEW WITH PRESIDENT LINCOLN---SCENES AT HIS RECEPTIONS---HIS INEXHAUSTIBLE HUMOR---HIS ASSASSINATION---A NATION IN TEARS.

Chicago projects a second mammoth Sanitary Fair---Attendance of President and Mrs. Lincoln solicited---His comical Narration of his Experiences at the Philadelphia Fair---"I couldn't stand another big Fair"---A humorous Inducement-Both promise Attendance---Mrs. Lincoln's Reception---The President's Manner of Receiving---Crowds in Attendance---Love for Children---"Stop, my little Man"---"You expect to be President sometime"---An unexpected Reply---The Humble welcomed---Love universally manifested for him---The Remains of the martyred President are received in Chicago---The unfeigned Grief of the Northwest---The Body lies in State at the Court House---"All is well with him forever!"

CHAPTER XXXI.

HEROISM OF SOLDIERS' WIVES---WHAT THEY ENDURED AT HOME---A SUNDAY MORNING VISIT TO THEIR FAMILIES---LEAVES FROM MY JOURNAL---PATHETIC INCIDENTS.

Petition of four hundred and eighty Soldiers in Southern Hospitals---"Ignore us, but look after our suffering Families!"---Heroism of Wives and Mothers---Visit Soldiers' Families with Chaplain McCabe---Children fierce and wild with Hunger---An under-ground Room, and great Wretchedness---The Soldier's Widow dies in the Night---Her Mother, in the Darkness, defends the Body from Rats---The Baby falls from the Chamber Window, while the Mother is away washing---A colored Woman turned out on the Sidewalk, with her dying Child, for unpaid Rent---Her Husband fighting under Colonel Shaw, in the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts---Governor Andrew sends me Carte blanche in the way of Relief for Families of that Regiment---The Historian should remember the Heroism of the Hearthstone

CHAPTER XXXII.

MY FIRST PUBLIC SPEECH---CROSSING THE MISSISSIPPI IN A ROW-BOAT---"A VOICE FROM THE FRONT"---FACING AN AUDIENCE FOR THE FIRST TIME---AN EVENTFUL NIGHT,

Return from the Front-Accept Invitation from Dubuque to address the Ladies---Ferry-boat detained by moving Ice in the Mississippi---Cross in a Row-boat---The Trip attended with much Danger--The Risk assumed---Many prophesied evil Results---They proved false Prophets---Crossed the River safely---"All Iowa will hear you to-night "---Appalled at the Prospect---Am advertised for a Lecture, without being consulted---"A Voice from the Front !"---Fear to attempt a public Speech---Hesitation overcome by Colonel Stone's Argument---The Results that followed---An Iowa Sanitary Fair is planned and carried out---Aggregates nearly $60,000

CHAPTER XXXIII.

REMINISCENCES OF THE WAR---TOUCHING STORY OF A RING---THE MAJOR WHO CRIED FOR MILK---CAPTURE OF GENERAL GRANT---"OLD ABE," THE WISCONSIN WAR EAGLE, AND HIS WONDERFUL CAREER.

Confronted by one of my own Letters---The widowed Mother tells her Story---Puts her dead Daughter's Ring on my Finger---Officers, Hospital at Memphis---Its wretched Condition---Is made comfortable by the Commission---Incident at the Fabyan House, White Mountains---"Do you remember the Major who cried for Milk?"---Second Sanitary Fair in Chicago---Held after the War ended---Regiments, Soldiers, and Officers received there---An Ovation to General Grant---Executes a flank Movement on the People---Is captured by young Ladies---" This beats Vicksburg all out of Sight!"---"Old Abe," the Eagle of the Eighth Wisconsin---His military Behavior---Children sell his Pictures for the Soldiers' Fair---Make $16,308.93 by the Sales

CHAPTER XXXIV.

SOLDIERS' LETTERS FROM THE FRONT DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR---VIVID PICTURES OF LIFE IN CAMP---DESOLATION---AMUSEMENTS---MARCHING---FORAGING---PICKET DUTY---LETTERS FROM HOME.

Authors of the Letters---Life in Camp---Exploits of the First Iowa---"A bully Boy"---hardships of a Chaplain---Fight at Conrad's Ferry---The Desolation of War---Impatient to be led into Action---"Little Mack"---President's Reception---The Picture of Weariness and Despair---Amusements---Morals---Without the Comforts of Civilization---Secession Literature---Hutchinsons sing in Camp---Soldiers wild with Delight---Dying from Camp Diseases---The Poor Horses---Depression of the Men---Picturesque Scenes---Breaking up Camp, and starting off-Going into Camp for the Night---Foraging---Difficulty of Moving a large Army---Longing for Letters from Home---Their blessed Influence---"The musty Crackers and rusty Bacon are better"---Fatigues of Picket Duty---In Pursuit of Something to eat---" Somebody had been frying Chickens "---Battle of Pea Ridge---As good as Dead the last half of the Battle

CHAPTER XXXV.

SOLDIERS' LETTERS FROM THE FRONT DURING THE SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR---HOW A SOLDIER FEELS IN BATTLE---SWAMPS OF THE CHICKAHOMINY---A BABY ON THE BATTLE-FIELD---" OLD ROSY."

Letter from a Nurse on a Hospital Boat---After the Battle of Shiloh---Battle Scenes---"Marching all Day, and fighting all Night"---Fearful Condition of the Sick and Wounded---Intimidating Effect of the howling Shells---Burning commissary Stores---" It is all over! I am to be killed! "---Hard Lot of the Sick---Wading through the villanous Mud of Virginia---General Howard wounded---"Hereafter let's buy our Gloves together!"---Letters from Home---"A Means of Grace"---Negro Friendliness---Splendid Foraging---Surprised at the good-looking Yankees---Life in a Rebel Prison---The Counterpart of Jeffreys and Haynau---Putrid Mule-Beef---Soup swarming with Bugs and Maggots---" A Baby on the Battle-Field"---The Army of the Cumberland---" Old Rosy"---Nationalities represented in the Army---" Schpike dem new Guns! No, Sheneral, it vould schpoil dem!"

CHAPTER XXXVI.

SOLDIERS' LETTERS FROM THE FRONT DURING THE THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR---HOUSEKEEPING IN CAMP---RIDING "CRITTER-BACK"---DARING DEEDS--REBEL PICKETS.

Battle of Chickamauga---Remarkable Presentiment---Housekeeping in Camp---Ignorance of the Enemy---"The walking Regiments"---"Cannon Soldiers "---Wept over his lifeless Body---Ignorance of secesh Soldiers---Yet they fight bravely---Have plenty of Hay, but no Impunity---Greater Loss by Sickness than on Fields of Battle---Evidence that the Enemy are near---" Riding Critter-back"---After the Battle of the Wilderness---"Any Commander but Grant would have retreated"---Recklessness of the Cavalry---Daring of the Soldiers---"Divide is the word, or you are a dead Johnny!"---Ten thousand Men sing "Rally round the Flag, Boys!"---"One vast, exultant Roar!"---Talking with rebel Pickets

CHAPTER XXXVII.

SOLDIERS' LETTERS FROM THE FRONT DURING THE LAST YEAR OF THE WAR---LIFE IN REBEL PRISONS---DREADFUL SCENES---HORRORS OF ANDERSONVILLE---LAST DAYS OF THE GREAT REBELLION---PEACE.

A Hospital Picnic---" The Stump Squad"---Strawberries for the Army---"Virginia a vast Blackberry Field"---"Old Hundred" in Camp-Hunting Bloodhounds---Letter from a Hospital Nurse in Annapolis---Thirty thousand Prisoners cooped up at Andersonville, in ten Acres---Their Hands and Feet rot off---Swarming with Vermin---Bones protrude through the Flesh---The Men become Idiots and Lunatics---Different Treatment of Southern Prisoners by the North---"The Yankees take good Care of us"---Last Days of Sherman's "March to the Sea"---The Army reaches the Atlantic Coast---Columbia, S. C., is burned---Destitution of the South---"At the Mercy of a General more powerful than Grant or Sherman, General Starvation"


Chapter One