Inflation and the energy crisis continued to present mounting financial difficulties during the years 1974 and 1975. The final accounting for fiscal year 1973-74 showed a deficit of $121,000 instead of the expected $38,000 surplus, a net swing of $159,000. The major factors in this unfortunate change were increases in travel expenses and overseas operating costs. Faced with an even larger deficit for the next fiscal year and acknowledging that the future months held many economic uncertainties, the administration and the Board decided to impose surcharges in AA program fees, $125 for the Summer Program and $250 for the School Program, and to increase the Winter Program fees by an average of $97. These surcharges were expected to reduce the deficit for FY 1975-76 from $616,000 to $14,000. In planning for 1975-76, the administration foresaw staggering increases in operating expenses of some $900,000, the largest one-year jump in the history of AFS.
One is apt to lose sight of the economic climate which brought about this situation. It should be remembered that the organization had to contend with two devaluations of the dollar, a fuel crisis and consequent steep increases in travel charges, inflation in the midst of a threatened recession, and a general feeling of uncertainty in the minds of the AFS supporters. Increased fund raising efforts and reorganization had, of course, helped to offset increases in expenses, but these could not keep pace with a persistently inflationary economy. Contributions had almost leveled off and further cuts in staff or operations would imperil the quality of the AFS programs.
As Mr. E.F.L Backer put it in his Treasurer's Report in December, 1974:
"For every dollar that AFS collected during FY 73- 74 from students' families around the world, it has paid out $2.30. That means, in effect, that for each of the almost five thousand students participating in the program during this year, chapters and other sources have had to provide $785 for each average scholarship. Of this amount, chapters and receiving countries contributed $625, leaving $160 which should have been found from sources such as donations, grants, rents, and investment income. The total needed amounted to $800,000; this would have to be substantially increased for FY 74-75 if we are just to keep pace with rising costs. We know that this would be virtually an impossible task.
"These are the reasons which have compelled AFS to resort to one of the less desirable alternatives, namely that of increasing family contributions and fees for fiscal years 74- 75 and 75-76.
"As we concern ourselves today with the frailty of our programs we are faced with the necessity of constantly rethinking our values and re-ordering our priorities. A unity of concern at all levels of our constituency will enable us to realize the full potential of our organization.
"The unanimous acceptance and approval which the increases in fees has earned from our constituency around the world strengthens our resolve to have quality remain the mainstay of our programs."
AFS And The Experiment
For some months, in fact since early in the presidency of Steve Rhinesmith, meetings and discussions had been taking place among several organizations engaged in international cultural programs--AFS, The Experiment in International living, the Council on International Educational Exchange, International Christian Youth Exchange, and Youth for Understanding---concerning common problems and investigating the possibilities of joint action in such areas as fund raising. All such organizations, though quite different in structure and somewhat different in programs, shared the same broad aims.
Discussions between two of these organizations, AFS and The Experiment, had moved beyond the level of "cooperation" and there was some feeling that the two organizations might consider some kind of formal affiliation. (Actually some impetus had been given to this idea by officials of the Department of State who saw, or thought they saw, duplication of effort or at the least, overlapping. Some corporations and foundations had also suggested the possibility of formal association).
As an encouragement to the investigation and through a joint effort of AFS and The Experiment, the Ford Foundation had given the two organizations a grant to make a study of "Interorganizational Possibilities."
In the fall of 1974, a joint staff committee of AFS and The Experiment had met several times to collect preliminary data on the administrative and financial structures of the two organizations, but the information had not been analyzed and there had been no recommendations forthcoming.
In early 1975, at a meeting of a Joint Committee of Trustees of AFS and The Experiment, the decision was reached to proceed with the study of inter-organizational possibilities. A committee of four staff members from each had been appointed and Dr. E. Jefferson Murphy had been retained as outside consultant. Subcommittees were appointed to explore the areas of finance, programs, and structure.
After several meetings of both the Joint Trustee and Joint Staff Committees and numerous subcommittee explorations, Dr. Murphy submitted his report to the Boards of both organizations recommending that no formal affiliation of the two organizations be effected at that time. This recommendation was accepted by both Boards, though the consensus was that a future affiliation of a formal nature might well come about and that meanwhile a definite effort should be made to continue and if possible increase cooperation between AFS and EIL
The Bright Side
Aside from the financial problems, which though serious were not fatal and could be dealt with, AFS was continuing to enjoy world-wide support and was even showing signs of a slight growth. Winter Program numbers increased from 2528 to 2607, the Summer Program from 1585 to 1624, the Multi National Program from 52 to 66, and the Domestic Programs registered a significant expansion of 200 percent. The School Program had suffered a slight decrease but was showing signs (in the Southern Hemisphere) of recovering its losses. The Educators Exchange with the U.S.S.R had increased for four teachers each way to six, and arrangements had been completed for a similar exchange with Poland. Negotiations were being conducted with Canada, Mexico, and Israel toward student programs with those countries.
AFS was confidently looking ahead to its next World Congress in 1976. Plans were being made concerning the locale, the selection of delegates, and the financing. As to the latter, the total estimated cost of $200,000 was to be allocated as follows:
|already set aside in FY 72-73 & FY 73-74|
|to be set aside in FY 74-75 & FY 75-76|
|in economies from cancellation of international conferences in 1976-77|
|to come from national donations|
In August, 1975, Mr. E.F.L Backer resigned from his position as AFS Treasurer for reasons of health. Mr. Backer, during his tenure as Treasurer, had made many innovations not only in the structure of his department but also in accounting procedures and in reporting to the Board and the Trustee Members. Mr. Backer had also been an effective liaison between AFS and the Australian-New Zealand Society, of which he was also Treasurer. The Society had long contributed generously to the Scholarship Fund of AFS, and as a result of Mr. Backer's good offices, this support was substantially increased.
As Mr. Backer's replacement, the Board elected Mr. Santo S. Mistretta, and the position was realigned and Mr. Mistretta was named Vice President for Finance and Administration. At the same time, Mr. Curtis G. Weeden, Director of Communications, was elevated to Vice President for Development and Public Affairs.
Program statistics for the year 1974-1975 showed that 2,618 students had spent the school year in the United States, 570 Americans had gone to other countries on the School Program, and 1,620 had participated in the Summer Program. Other figures were: 54 on the Multi National Program; 12 on the Intra-European Program, and 262 on the U.S. Domestic Programs. The Teachers Exchange included 12 with the USSR and 10 with Poland. As AFS entered the 1975-1976 program year, further increases were registered: the Winter Program reached 2,704 (including 4 Community College placements) and the Americans Abroad School Program had a participation of 623. At this date, since 1947, program totals had passed the eighty-thousand level:
Americans Abroad Summer Program
Multi National Program
U.S. Domestic Programs
More important perhaps for the future was the turnaround in U.S. Chapter numbers. From a low point of 1,967 Chapters in 1973-1974 the number had now been increased to 2,076. Much of this increase was due to the activities of the U.S. Field Development Department which had been established in 1974.
Financially AFS seemed to have weathered a somewhat stormy period successfully. The final figures for Fiscal Year 1974-75 showed an overall excess of income over expenses of $41,474 rather than an expected deficit of close of $100,000. Fund raising efforts had brought in a total of $657,545, again in excess of the stated goal of $575,000 for the year. Fund balances looked extremely healthy:
Property & Equipment
Endowment Fund .
*Marketable securities' values an stated at cost.
The budget for the 1976 World Congress scheduled for September 11-19 was revised downward from $200,000 to $125,000. Some 320 participants were expected to attend.
New country participation seemed to be in the offing. President Rhinesmith announced that William Orrick, AFS Vice President, had recently returned from Tel Aviv where, after an effort of ten years, arrangements had been successfully completed for the initiation of AFS programs with Israel. Programs with Canada, Mexico, and Poland also appeared to be imminent.
The AFS Annual Report for 1975 revealed a significant growth in the membership and the importance of the AFS International Council. Composed of leading men and women from around the world--statesmen, businessmen, educators, artists--who endorse the principles of the AFS International Scholarship program, the Council provides periodic consultation and assistance to the AFS administration. The Council has been a vehicle for interpreting and promoting AFS activities throughout the world. At the end of 1975 the membership included:
Morris B. Abram, Former U.S. Representative, United Nations Commission on Human Rights
Charles C. Bergman, Executive Vice President, Institutes of Religion and Health (Council Chairman)
Leonard Bernstein, Composer and Conductor
John Brademas, U.S. Congressman
Kingman Brewster, Jr., President, Yale University
Edward W. Brooke, Senator from Massachusetts
Norman Cousins, Editor, Saturday Review/World Magazine
Peter O. Duchin, Musician
Charles Frankel, Former Asst. Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs
Helen Hayes, Actress
Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr., Senator from Minnesota
Jacob K Javits, Senator from New York
Dr. Rudolf Kirschschlaeger, President of Austria
Dr. Margaret Mead, Anthropologist
Dr. Martin Meyerson, President,. University of Pennsylvania
Frank Pace, Jr., President, International Executive Service Corps.
Jean Rey, Former President and Member, Commission of the European Economic Communities
Dr. Ivo Samkalden, Former Minister of Justice in The Netherlands
Mrs. HeIvi Sipila, Asst. Secretary General for Social and Humanitarian Matters, United Nations
Joseph E. Slater, President, Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies
Tan Sri Mohamed Suffian, Chief Justice of Malaysia
Mrs. Marietta P. Tree, Former Representative to the United Nations Commission Human Rights and the UN Trusteeship Council
Cyrus R. Vance, President, New York Bar Association
During the year 1975 political developments affected AFS programs in several parts of the world.
The fifteen AFS students in the United States from South Vietnam became refugees when their government collapsed. AFS assumed the responsibility of finding them sponsors in the United States and also assisted in the relocation of a number of Vietnamese returnees who emigrated to the United States.
Political changes in Ethiopia resulted in the closing of the upper grades of secondary schools. The AFS National Office was unable to recruit students and the Winter Program in Ethiopia was suspended.
Americans Abroad students could not be sent to Lebanon and Cyprus because of armed conflict in those two countries.
As the calendar year 1976 opened, certain priorities emerged rather clearly:
1. Of first importance was the World Congress, preparation for it and the session themselves.
2. In management, systems were needed to improve financial relationships between AFS International and the component countries of the organization. Efficiency must be improved, and provision made for more data more readily available for planning.
3. Efforts must be continued and intensified to provide information systems also to communicate effectively with the constituency---families, communities, and students---and with professional staff and volunteers.
4. Finally, the organization looked forward to continuing experimentation with new programs and with alternative placements and experiences for AFS students.
Early on, the new year promised to be one of unusual excitement and activity. An incident occurred in January which might well have had serious adverse consequences for AFS and its future in various parts of the world. The crisis was averted by the prompt and decisive action by the Administration---particularly by President Rhinesmith and Jennifer Froistad, Director of International Programs and Operations. The dramatic story can perhaps best be told by reprinting here a memorandum from Ms. Froistad to President Rhinesmith, dated 16 February 1976:
RE: AFS involvement in arrest of Gabriela Salazar, WP returnee, by Chilean government.
In mid-January, 1976 we received an unsigned cable from France requesting AFS intervention on behalf of Gabriela, who had been arrested by the Chile Service on New Year's Eve. Our response to the cable was to write to France explaining why such intervention was impossible in view of the non-political stance of AFS. Since we have, over the years, received similar requests for intervention, we did not take any further action at that time since our experience has been that a negative response was sufficient to prevent further AFS involvement.
Since the cable was unsigned, we (as it turns out, erroneously) assumed it was from the French office. Therefore, our response was to the French office.
January 25, 1976, two days after the close of the Trustee meeting, we received a cable from Jozef Van Ranst, Trustee member from Belgium. requesting that AFS intervene on Gabriela's behalf in the spirit of world solidarity. Assuming that Jozef had become aware of the situation involving Gabriela via the French office, we sent a cable immediately to France with the following text:
IMPOSSIBLE AFS INTERVENE ON BEHALF OF GABRIELA SALAZAR OR ANY INDIVIDUAL ARRESTED BY THEIR GOVERNMENT STOP WOULD CONSTITUTE POLITICAL ACT AND SET PRECEDENT FOR INTERVENTIONS IN HUNDREDS OF CASES REPRESENTING DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS AND GOVERNMENTS STOP WOULD JEOPARDIZE EXISTENCE OF AFS IN MANY COUNTRIES STOP GABRIELA ONE OF MANY FORMER AFS STUDEATS ENDANGERED BY CONFLICTS WITH AUTHORITIES STOP SUGGEST YOU AND JOZEF CONTACT THE AGENCIES ESTABLISHED TO EFFECTIVELY INTERVENE STOP AFS NAME CANNOT BE OFFICIALLY USED STOP AFS CHILE IN MOST DELICATE POSITION VIS A VIS GOVERNMENT IMPERATIVE WE NOT JEOPARDIZE THEIR FUTURE STOP PLEASE INFORM JOZEF SIGNED STEVE RHINESMITH
At this point we did not send a cable to Jozef Van Ranst, assuming that he was in contact with AFS in France and that Frame would notify him of our position. Therefore, we thought the matter was closed.
On February 6th we received a copy, attached for your reference, of a letter that had been circulated to AFS friends and former AFSers by Inge and Jozef Van Ranst asking that all concerned intervene on behalf of Gabriela. The letter was dated 25 January, the same day as the cable we had received from Jozef. We did not receive the letter from Inge and Jozef, but rather via Baerbel Helmers, who passed it on to us since she was concerned both about the student and the implications for AFS in Chile. Although the letter does not indicate that the AFS name should be used, it definitely does not preclude the use of the AFS name either officially or unofficially. Further, the fact that it designates the U.S. Embassy in both Santiago and in the respondent countries as one of the groups to write to, would indicate that the AFS association is to be considered. There is no indication in the letter that groups such as Amnesty might be the most effective body to aid in Gabriela's behalf.
On Monday, February 9th we received a copy of a letter which had been written by Ulla Rudberg and Christina Olsson, NR and Assistant NR in Sweden, addressed to General Pinochet in Chile and signed AFS/Sweden. The text of the letter asked that the government release Gabriela in the spirit of human justice and concluded with the statement that there could be no valid reason for her arrest.
As soon as we received a copy of this letter we realized that (sic) the situation might be getting out of hand in Europe. Although neither Inge nor Jozef had asked that the AFS name be used, the fact that one of our NRs had in fact used it seemed to open the possibility of their people doing likewise. Therefore, we immediately took steps to stop further correspondence on behalf of Gabriela Salazar and to determine the extent to which communications of this sort had already been sent to Chile. On the 9th of February, the following cable was sent to all European offices:
IMPERATIVE AFS NAME NOT USED IN COMMUNICATIONS TO CHILE REGARDING WP SALAZAR OR ANY FORMER PARTICIPANTS STOP DOING SO ENDANGERS EVERYONE CONNECTED AFS CHILE STOP NR LUCHO ZEGERS EXTREMELY ANXIOUS URGES ALL CONCERNED CONSIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILEAN AFS PEOPLE AND PROGRAMS STOP EUROPA CHAIRMAN RUFFINO IN COMPLETE ACCORD STOP RELAY THIS MESSAGE YOUR CONSTITUENCY STOP LUCHO ZEGERS TELEPHONING FROISTAD FRIDAY FROM ARGENTINA PRIOR RETURN CHILE STOP MUST INFORM HIM THEN REGARDING ANY COMMUNICATIONS SENT USING AFS NAME AS IMPOSSIBLE COMMUNICATE OPENLY AFTER RETURN STOP TELEPHONE IF APPLICABLE - SIGNED STEVE RHINESMITH
This was the first time in history that the name of AFS had been used directly for political purposes. On 2 March 1976 the question was posed to the Board of Directors, in Executive Session, whether a formal resolution was called for to prevent future occurrences of a similar nature. The Board felt no such resolution was needed but requested the Administration to convey to the AFS constituency throughout the world that under no circumstances should the AFS name be used in connection with political requests on behalf of any individual associated with AFS or any AFS organization. The Directors also endorsed the action of the Administration and the policy set forth in the President's cable to European offices as quoted in the above memorandum.
Thus was one of the imperatives of AFS traditional policy reaffirmed.
The year 1976 was to be one of change in some of the top management of AFS. In the order of seniority of service, those changes involved Dr. William A. Gardner, William Orrick, and Curtis Weeden.
Readers of this history will recognize Dr. Gardner as having been Medical Director of AFS since the early years of the scholarship program and as having provided expert professional guidance in several rather critical moments in the programs' career. What does not readily appear from this history is the day-to-day, week-to-week, and month-to-month devotion of Dr. Gardner to the welfare of the organization and to the health of its participating students. Scrupulous in his attention to detail and in his adherence to the highest ethical standards of his profession, Dr. Gardner brought to his duties as Medical Director a dedication of the highest order.
Also to be retired at the end of 1976 under the mandatory age limitation was William Orrick, who had joined AFS in 1968 after his retirement from the Headmastership of Solebury School. Mr. Orrick had occupied a number of administrative positions as a member of the AFS staff, including those of Director of the Winter Program, Director of Americans Abroad, and Director of International Operations. As Vice President for Programs he had also initiated the AFS Teachers' Exchange with the USSR and the student program with Israel. During 1976 Mr. Orrick would be acting as special consultant to President Rhinesmith and also gathering material for a history of the Scholarship Program.
Another AFS career would also be ending in 1976, though not through superannuation. Curtis Weeden, who had come to AFS in 1972 as Director of Communications and subsequently had been named Vice President for Development and Public Affairs, submitted his resignation to the Board of Directors effective 31 March 1976.
Though a member of the staff for only four years, Mr. Weeden had made a deep impress upon AFS staff and volunteers in many parts of the world through his professional competence and personal qualities, providing those who worked with him strong and positive leadership and a creativity that was apparent in the excellent publications produced during his tenure and in the effectiveness of the development operation.
A Backward Look
As we approach the time of the World Congress '76, it seems advisable to look back over the almost five years of Steve Rhinesmith's stewardship. Much was accomplished; there were many innovations as well as developments of things started previously.
During thee years the image of AFS, as a leader in the field of international exchange was reinforced. President Rhinesmith wrote and published a handbook for nongovernmental organizations working in the international arena whose dependence for success rests upon a strong volunteer organization. This handbook was titled Bring Home the World. AFS also became more strongly identified with the educational reform movement through association with the Center for Global Perspectives and with the Chief State School Officers.
The need for national support of international organization was articulated by Rhinesmith's participation in the National Council on Philanthropy and other organizations and conferences. He also participated as an expert consultant in the USA/CV reorganization within the United States government. International recognition of AFS in official circles was also strengthened by membership on the U.S. Commission of UNESCO AND ECOSOC.
One of the most obvious internal changes within AFS was the emphasis on organization development and training. Through the establishment of a new department, and extensive training program for professional staff and volunteers had been developed. For example, over twenty different workshops for volunteers had been conducted worldwide and within the United States at Chapter and regional levels. Staff members were being trained to become trainers and conducted training programs themselves as a basic part of their operating style.
Within the headquarters organization, in addition to the Organizational Development department, many other innovations had taken place. The public relations and communications functions had been expanded considerably and the quality of the material was noticeably more sophisticated and more modern in approach. The national television and radio advertising campaign was established on an annual basis.
Functionally the program divisions of Americans Abroad and the Winter Program were reorganized on a geographical basis to permit operational separation of AFS/US from AFS International. Program functions, such as selection and placement were decentralized and increasingly rested in the hands of U.S. volunteers and national offices and volunteer committees in other countries. The Field Development thrust became a priority.
As a result of all of these, the number of U.S. chapters rose from a declining level of about 1900 in 1972 to approximately 2300; about 350 new chapters were now being started every year. The decline in the Winter Program was stopped, and the number of students participating rose from some 2,500 to about 2,900. The Summer Program rose 5,070 and the School Program doubled in size. The Multi National Program began to assume significant proportions, as did the Domestic Programs. The Soviet and Polish Teachers' Exchange seemed to be thriving.
As one looked back to the recommendations issuing from the World Congress of 1971, you could not help being impressed by the influence that meeting had exerted on the internationalization movement. The Congress itself had become a formalized institution on a five-year cycle. The number of non-U.S. Trustee Members had gone from 8 to 20. Regional overseas conferences were now established on an annual basis and were increasingly concerned with the development of AFS policy. Communication between the International Headquarters and the worldwide organization was much improved and there was better understanding throughout AFS of organizational finances as well as of the rationale for international decision-making and long-range planning.
Planning and forecasting methods were now more sophisticated. Contingency and analytical modeling was now made possible by the application of computers to travel planning, financial models, development functions, and selection and placement systems as well as to accounting. Currently, it seemed possible to maintain a break-even budget performance without the wide biennial swings from feast to famine and back again.
How does President Rhinesmith view his past presidency? What does he see for the future?
"My job has changed a lot from the way Arthur used to do it, and the way I did it when I first came in; in that I have moved much more toward planning, toward financial and program planning, toward representational work and toward the coordination of interdivisional conflicts and the resolution of divisional conflicts, and the setting of priorities for the organization. I'm now almost totally out of day-to-day operations, and my general feeling is that that's the role of the President, that's the way it should be.
"The other major thrust in the reorganization here has been to push down responsibility as much as possible, so that decisions are now made at the level closest to the situation, and also pushing it out from here to national offices abroad, and pushing it out to the U.S. Field---those two movements are most specifically identifiable in the selection and placement procedures which have been pushed out, with responsibility for final selection and placement now resting in many countries and many states in the United States--out there. Now where we are at this time I think is that the U.S. is well put together and does the job well; the international department is also, I think, in line. I foresee that in the next five years there will need to be changes. One of the changes is that computerization, and the evolving role of finances as a central criterion for decision-making and the locus of decision-making over the next five years. To be specific, how many students we've brought from what areas of the world has been decided by program, based upon what they felt were either the good areas of the world to bring kids from or rewards for high hosting or whatever ideological, philosophical, and performance reasons.
"But recently, because of our enormous increase in travel costs, the travel department and systems and the computer operation are now beginning to lay out what is the optimum travel configuration for hosting and receiving countries around the world; and the program people are having to adjust their wishes to the financial reality of what travel configurations are most appropriate.
"One of the things that we have done in the last two years, that I really think is a great breakthrough, is that the people who are running travel and finance understand much more the program philosophy and operations than any of their predecessors did, and as a result, they're much more sensitive. They did their jobs with a sensitivity and an understanding of the needs of the program people.
"There is, of course, major conflict between program and finance, but it's on a completely different level. It used to be on the level of procedures and administrative patterns; now it's more on the role of what will be the criteria for making decisions for the organization, and what role will finance play. It's getting to a question of what we call primacy: in some areas program will have primacy and in some areas finance will have primacy.
"We are presently involved in some very long, very heavy, interpersonal, personal and professional, conceptual, intellectual discussions over territory---the degrees to which the evolving financial department threatens and causes problems to the current organizational structure and decision-making locuses, decision-making responsibility. That's why I say there will be changes, and through computerization also---not that jobs will be eliminated, but there will be new information, and the information will be available to new people.
"National AFS organizations around the world are growing stronger and getting more sophisticated, obviously. And the kind and level of support that they need from New York will vary, and the degree to which an international department needs to be structured in the way it is now, giving the support that it does now, will vary.
"I think you should re-examine the structure of an organization every year, within the light of the goals and priorities that you have for the year, in order to determine whether or not you have the manpower and the resources needed. The goal setting process, certainly on an annual basis, is a combination of three of our major factors: one is certainly the increasing sophistication of current operations; a second source of goals is the issues raised by volunteers and staff in conferences, abroad and in this country--the regional conferences abroad every year and the area level and chapter level conferences in this country. A third source, and a major source I must say, is my own view of what the organization needs within the next year and what it needs in the future. And that comes very much from my own thinking and my own reading, and very much from my participation in conferences, my position on the Board of other organizations, and my assessment of other organizations in the field, my assessment of the government and what its interests appear to be, and governments around the world and what their interests appear to be in the future, and the general flow of the intellectual and organizational and educational climate in this country and abroad. Probably my primary function here , sensing the direction, and then the establishment of goals and a direction for AFS which is consonant with that. A fourth source is, I think, certain demands that the environment places on us, over which we have no control: like OPEC and the rising oil prices, or like C.A.B. and the changing airline regulations, or like the I.R.S. and the changing auditing practices, or the accounting industry--all of the social forces which impinge on the work of an organization like this, and which the organization needs to take into account in doing its work.
"The leadership of AFS is enormously challenging. Leadership has a number of different components: one is articulating the purpose of the organization, articulating the spirit in a way that has an emotional impact on staff, students, and volunteers--to articulate those things that people feel very deeply themselves about why they work for AFS, and why they're involved in AFS, and what they're getting out of AFS, and what fears they have about what they're doing.
"There's a second leadership of AFS, which is intellectual/conceptual. AFS has become a very, very complex organization to understand--let alone to manage. The philosophical, economic and social perspectives and values that must be brought to bear on every problem is enormous. Intellectual capacity and analytical capacity are prime requisites for the leadership of this organization---to be able to analyze complex things, to be able to hear the wide range of philosophical, economic, and social factors, and to integrate them and weight them all equally.
"While Art and Steve Galatti and everybody before me certainly weighed all of these considerations, the demands on us to articulate them, to lay out the criteria in a clear fashion, and then to be judged whether we have done it correctly and whether we've done it fairly, is I think perhaps a bit more strongly; today then it was in past days. I think also the organization has become, certainly more than in the days when Steve Galatti was President, more complex as a system, and more complex in terms of the financial and structural and organizational; the leadership of this organization has become an intellectual challenge.
"Management is the other half of this job--management of the day-to-day, month-to-month, year-to-year administrative and financial processes of the organization. You obviously have to be able to deal with a lot of things at once, to deal with probably 20 to 35 things in one day. You've got to be able to break problems down into doable parts, and be able to determine who should get them assigned, and setting dates and times and making sure that things move. The third is what I would call the establishment of the momentum of the organization in annual planning cycles and implementing cycles, so that the people in the organization have a sense of movement from to year, a sort of dynamism that can be felt all through the organization."
It is obvious that Steve Rhinesmith has made his quality felt throughout AFS; it is equally obvious that he is not resting on his accomplishments to date. The future of AFS, though as fraught with problems as the past, is bright. One cannot look back over the history of he Scholarship Program without gaining a confidence that its future is in good hands. It seems that the needs of the organization at various stages of its growth and development have brought forth the leader most needed at the time. All have been men of great quality, though vastly different, and have given to the organization the kind of leadership the times and the state of the organization most needed.
Steve Galatti, a man of vision and audacity, created and dominated the program and the organization. AFS is indeed his "lengthened shadow". Arthur Howe, the educator, a man of liberal persuasion and yet a conservator, saw the need for a more professional and less charismatic approach to the administration of the organization, which upon his arrival had reached a stage of development so complex and extensive that it was no longer susceptible to one-man management. Finally, Steve Rhinesmith, young, energetic, aggressive, innovative and yet committed to the traditions of AFS, brought an experience in training, organization development, and management that seemed ideally suited to the increasingly serious fiscal and economic problems facing the AFS programs.
One must not overlook also the continuity of tradition and devotion provided by the Trustee Members and the Board of Directors, who faced many times decisions that could make or break the organization. The individual brilliance and collective wisdom which these men and women furnished over the years have as much as any other factor contributed to the excellence of the programs and the success in coping with the problems.
Though this brief history has not adequately dealt with those whose ability and sense of high responsibility see to the day-to-day business of AFS, there is no question that the organization's greatest strength lies in and has always been based upon the staff and the thousands of volunteers throughout the world who have contributed to an almost unique spirit and a willingness to undertake the most difficult and even the seemingly impossible and see it through. Many of the tasks performed by these people are mundane and repetitious, but almost invariably one finds in them the traditional AFS commitment to the ideals of the organization.
It is customary, I know, to acknowledge the assistance of those who have contributed to the accomplishment of a piece of writing. In my case it is obvious that much of the material in this volume comes from the official minutes of the organization so ably kept for many years by Bob Applewhite. His name also must be included among those who are quoted as sources, together with Ward Chamberlin, the late Bill Hooton, Elaine Koehl, Dot Field, Mary Annery, Blaine Worth, Arthur Howe, Steve Rhinesmith, Mrs. Thomas Vennum, and the late Robert Thayer all of whom were interviewed and contributed personal accounts of their experiences for this record.
Coming as I did to the AFS staff in 1969, not being one of the "pioneers", as it were, I could not help being deeply impressed by the quality of the people who made the program go. Their competence, their devotion above and beyond, their willingness to cope with the unusual--all of these qualities were evident. But there was more than that; there were also enthusiasm and enjoyment, almost gusto, and at times a passion and fire that could always be evoked by a challenge to their values. Certainly I cannot end this account without mentioning some of those whose names appear only incidentally or briefly in this history, but whose contributions to the success of the AFS programs during my time here warrant much more mention than they have received. Among those on the New York staff were: Cliff Baacke, Jackie (Cannon) Brown, Karen Eisele, Blue Faxon, Dr. William Gardner, Alice Gerlach, the late Vee Greisen, Gordon Hansen, Carole (Corcoran) Huxley, Nancy Kelly, Shel Lurie, Julie Reinicke, Stanley Smith; in other countries, Martha de Bigliani (Argentina), Jose Ramon Chevarria (Costa Rica), Jacques Contant (Belgium), Maria Helena Villela Correa (Brazil), Barbara Helmers and Helga Von Hoffman (Germany), the late Anja Lukainen (Finland), Fritz Otti (Austria), Roberto Ruffino and Ezio Vergani (Italy); among U.S. volunteers: Blanche Bicking, Dorothy Brandt, Elita Hawley, Ruth Jenks, Florence Leon, Patty Shaner and Adele Taylor--all of these, I count among my valued AFS friends. Over the years, I have been privileged to know and work with many distinguished Trustee Members and Directors. Of those mentioned in the text perhaps my closest association was with the late John Nettleton, whose friendship is one of the cherished memories of my AFS days.
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