The History of the
AMERICAN FIELD SERVICE
1920-1955

by George Rock

with contributions by many members
of the American Field Service

Maps by Frederick Trench Chapman

The American Field Service
The Platen Press
New York, 1956

Copyright, 1956
by American Field Service, Inc.
New York, New York

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 56-9374

Quotations from Ambulance in Africa by Evan Thomas (Copyright, 1943, Evan Thomas) reprinted by permission of the publishers, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.; quotations from Mercy in Hell by Andrew Geer (Copyright, 1943, Andrew Geer) reprinted by permission of the author and of Curtis Brown, Ltd.; quotations from War Without Music by Peter Muir (Copyright, 1940, Charles Scribner's Sons) reprinted by permission of the publishers, Charles Scribner's Sons.

Printed in the United States of America for THE PLATEN PRESS, New York, New York by H. WOLFF Book Mfg. Co.


Dedicatory Letter

Stephen Galatti, Director General of the American Field Service and the American Field Service International Scholarships, we consider a notable example of the volunteer dedicated to the cause of humanity and improved world understanding. We consider the growth and high reputation of the Service to be a direct reflection of his integrity and capacity and wisdom.

Stephen Galatti volunteered in the American Field Service in 1915 and was decorated for bravery and outstanding service. It was primarily through his efforts that the American Field Service was held together during the period between the two World Wars and, thanks to this, that it was ready for the call of France in 1939 and for World War II. Subsequently, under Stephen Galatti's leadership, the American Field Service made the distinguished record about which you will read in this book.

After World War II, a meeting was held in New York at which the future of the American Field Service was discussed. It was the desire of those present that the organization should continue under Stephen Galatti's leadership to try to help international relations and in particular to interpret the vast and complex United States of America to our friends. We do not feel that any leader could have done it better, and we are proud to have been associated with him.

ENOS CURTIN
WILLIAM H. WALLACE, JR.


CONTENTS

Preface by Stephen Galatti
Foreword

INTRODUCTION:

 1. The First Months of the American Ambulance(September 1914 to May 1915). --By J. PAULDING BROWN
2. Between the Wars: The Fellowships for French Universities and Blérancourt (1919 to 1939)
3. Preparations for Participation in World War II (September 1939 to March 1940)
   
  I. FRANCE 1940 (March to September 1940)
II. INTERIM ACTIVITIES: England, Kenya, Greece, and the Middle East (June 1940 to November 1941)
III. MIDDLE EAST 1: Tobruk to El Alamein (November 1941 to September 1942)
IV. MIDDLE EAST 2: Organization and Administration
V. MIDDLE EAST 3: El Alamein to Tunis (October 1942 to May 1943)
VI. MIDDLE EAST 4: Syria, Tripoli, Cairo, and Algiers (April 1942 to August 1944)
VII. ITALY 1: Termoli, Volturno-Monte Camino, Trigno-Sangro-Ortona. (October 1943 to January 1944)
VIII. ITALY 2: Garigliano, Anzio, Winter on the Adriatic (January to April 1944)
IX. ITALY 3: Cassino to Rome (February to June 1944)
X. ITALY 4: North to Florence (June to August 1944)
XI. ITALY 5: The Gothic Line (August 1944 to March 1945)
XII. VICTORY 1: Italy (March to July 1945)
XIII. VICTORY 2: Northwest Europe, the British Liberation Armies (March to July 1945)
XIV. VICTORY 3: Return to France (March 1944 to July 1945)
XV. INDIA-BURMA 1: The First Year May 1943 to April 1944)
XVI. INDIA-BURMA 2: Return to Burma (April to November 1944)
XVII. VICTORY 4: India-Burma (November 1944 to November 1945)
XVIII. THE FIRST YEARS OF THE TEEN-AGE PROGRAMS (1946 to 1955)
   
  APPENDICES
 A. Roll of Honor 1915-1917
B. Roll of Honor, 1939-1945
C. Wounded in Action, 1939-1945
D. Decorations and Awards, 1939-1945
E. Prisoners of War, 1939-1945
F. Number and Distribution of Men, 1939-1945
G. Embarkations, 1939-1945
H. Alphabetic Roster of Volunteers, 1939-1945
I. New York Staff, 1920-1945
J. Representatives, 1939-1945
K. Holders of Fellowships for French Universities, 1919-1951
L. Participants in Teen-Age Summer Program, 1950-1955
M. Charts of the International Scholarship and Summer Programs, by Country, 1946-1955
N. Abbreviations and Glossary
O. Bibliography
  Illustrations
Maps


Introduction 1: The First Months of the American Ambulance